Reindeer herders with good access to markets such as in Scandinavia have created a meat based economy for reindeer, and this has also been a positive outcome of the recent oil and gas related boom in parts of the Yamal Peninsula and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug. However, in the majority of reindeer herding areas, especially in Russia, the poor state of the local economy and the lack of access to markets has meant a very low standard of living for reindeer herders. In such areas, recruitment into the livelihood has been a challenge and this has threatened the long term future of reindeer husbandry.