Komi are relative newcomers to reindeer husbandry adopting and adapting it from their neighbours, the Nenets. Komi are a Finno Ugric peoples the majority of whom live in the Komi Republic, with reindeer husbandry primarily focused in the North and practiced by the Izhma Komi. There are also Komi practicing reindeer husbandry in the Kola Peninsula, the Nenets Autonomous Okrug and the Yamal Nenets Autonomous Okrug. It was not until the 18th Century that Komi started migrating with reindeer herds. Large scale herding emerged and from its conception was a market oriented activity and Komi proved to be very successful.

Over time, their herding routes mingled with Nenets routes to the North.Winter pastures are located in the forested regions and forest tundra in the Southwest,with summer pastures located in the tundra region to the North and Northeast in the herding area of the Nenets in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug.

Komi reindeer herding is organized in teams, of which there are 52, composed of six to eight herders and one or two tent workers which herd a total of approximately 115,000 reindeer. Migration routes are long, every spring and early summer, reindeer herding teams travel up to 400 km each way to reach their pastures, with the same routes being used annually. Reindeer are used for meat production, transportation, clothing and handicrafts. The production of reindeer antlers has been important.

The majority are owned by the agricultural collectives, but some 20% are in private ownership and a small number are in private reindeer farms.