Anders Oskal

Visit to Evenki herders in China – A Sámi Herders Perspective

June 11, 2018 • Philip Burgess

Issát Turi is a Sámi reindeer herder, one of the authors of the award winning EALLU book and has been working with and for the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry for many years. He also accompanied Anders Oskal, Mikhail Pogodaev, Inger Anita Smuk, Juoksa Smuk and Elen Sara Sparrok after the Gourmand Awards to Inner Mongolia, to the Evenki village of Alouguya, China as the ICR-WRH team visited with Evenki herders. Below is a brief summary of a conversation with him now that the ICR / WRH team are back in Sápmi.  

Of course reindeer herding on the tundra and the taiga are very different things. For the Evenki, their economy is totally different. We depend on meat production, whereas Evenki in China use the herds to produce medicinal products from antlers and there is some small milk production. There’s a big market for these products in the Far East. They have challenges to recruit young herders of course, as many of the herds are quite remote and are in tough places to live. Their herds are now inside a recently created national park and this has brought new challenges. Local Evenki are no longer allowed to hunt inside the borders of the Park and hunting is a big part of their livelihoods. The rules of the National Park have also meant that herders are not allowed to carry any weapon, even a bow and arrow, to protect their reindeer from predators. Bears are especially numerous in the park and are taking  a lot of the reindeer calfs. Herders are allowed to have a dog but herders told us that the dogs don’t help so much. 

See a new photo gallery from the ICR / WRH team visit to Alouguya below

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ICR/WRH Visit Evenki Reindeer Herders in Aoluguya, China. See Photo Gallery

June 4, 2018 • Philip Burgess

After the stunning victory of overall  ‘Best in the World’ Foodbook for the EALLU food book, a smaller delegation from the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry (ICR) and the Association of World Reindeer Herders (WRH) made their way north to the town of Genhe, then to the village of Aolouguya to meet once more with their Evenki herding compatriots. The ICR/WRH delegation consisted of Anders Oskal, Mikhail Pogodaev, Inger Anita Smuk, Issat Turi, Ellen Sara Sparrok and Juoksa Smuk. 

WRH attended meetings and a welcome dinner with the Mayor of Genhe, Zhaomin Hu. Genhe is a sizeable city  in the far northeast of Inner Mongolia, and is the only region with reindeer husbandry which is centred on the Evenki reindeer herding village of Aoluguya. Genhe and Alouguya was the location of the 5th World Reindeer Herding Congress

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World Reindeer Herders reports on the Arctic Council EALLU project

March 20, 2018 • Philip Burgess

This week the Association of World Reindeer Herders is vising Levi in Finland, where the Arctic Council SDWG and SAO meeting are held. WRH General Secretary Anders Oskal has presented the report on the work of the EALLU project for the last months.During this period more than ten educational seminars were organized, dedicated to food culture, traditional knowldege, reindeer herding youth etc. WRH had a succesful 6th Congress of World reindeer herder in Sweden; publications on traditional knowldge and food culture were published and several are about to be. WRH delegation will stay in Finland for few more days before going to hold its Council meeting, which will be in Salekhard at the end of this week.


WRH and RAIPON meetings in reindeer herding areas of Norway

January 20, 2018 • Alena Gerasimova

Kautokeino, Norway. January 18, the Association of World Reindeer Herders (WRH) hosts their guests and friends from the Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of te North (RAIPON) with the leader of delegation – president Grigory Ledkov. WRH Chair of the Board Mikhail Pogodaev and WRH secretary general Anders Oskal picked up Gregory Ledkov, Vladimir Klimov and Stepan Vanuito from RAIPON at the airport of Kittila. The program of the visit was organized by WRH and the Interational Centre for Reindeer Husbandry (ICR).  On their first day of visit guests were introduced to the slaughtering house Finnmarksrein ( 

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Territory of Arctic Dialogue Forum – EALLU project participating

March 27, 2017 • Philip Burgess

On March 29-30, 2017, Arkhangelsk in Northwest Russia will host a regular The Arctic — Territory of Dialogue international Arctic forum. Held annually since 2010, the forum is one of the the largest international platform for discussing problems facing the Arctic and prospects for regional development.Russian President Vladimir Putin and Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin are expected to attend the forum. The EALLU project is hosting an Arctic indigenous peoples cuisine event  at the Forum, which is expected to be attended by over 1,000 people. Traditional foods of reindeer peoples – Eveny, Evenki, Sami and Nenets – will be served and information about the EALLU project will be distributed. A large team from ICR is present, along with many of the EALLU youth participants. The programme is posted here (still being added to)

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“Keepers of the Land” film was shown in Monaco during the “Students on Ice” Launch

January 12, 2017 • Alena Gerasimova

“Keepers of the Land” is shown in Monaco in the presence of HSH the Sovereign Prince Albert II

Director of the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry and also a representative of the of the UArctic EALAT Institute Anders Oskal within the partnership with the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, gave a presentation with regard to the current situation and the rapid changes in reindeer herding areas of the Arctic experienced by this region. 

The meeting was launched on 11th January at the Lycée Technique et Hôtelier of Monaco, in the presence of HSH the Sovereign Prince. During his presentation Anders shared a documentary called “The Keepers of the Land” with Prince Albert II of Monaco and with the audience which was mainly represented by the students from “Students On Ice” programme. 

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EALLU Seminar Wraps Up in Salekhard, Yamal Nenets AO

November 8, 2016 • Philip Burgess

EALLU YouthToday the EALLU seminar entitled ‘Traditional Knowledge and Food Culture of Indigenous Peoples of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug: Towards a Safe and Sustainable Future’. The event was attended by students and youth, along with researchers, the ICR and WRH team and indigenous and political leaders from the Yamal Nenets Automous Okrug.

Content from the workshop will also feed into the EALLU Reindeer Herders Arctic Cookbook which will be delivered to the Arctic Council next year.

See meeting gallery below. Meeting programme is here.

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Moscow is hosting an international Arctic cooperation conference

October 12, 2016 • Alena Gerasimova

arct2016benOctober 12, Moscow. The international conference International Cooperation in the Arctic: New Challenges and Vectors of Development, organized by the Russian International Affairs Council (RIAC) with the support of the Russian Foreign Ministry has started. The conference will take place from 12 till 13 October 2016.

“In order to discuss a number of major issues of cooperation in the region the Russian Council on International Affairs with the support of the Government Office of Russia and the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs is holding a conference entitled ” International cooperation in the Arctic: New Challenges and vectors of development ” on October 12-13, – the organizers reported.

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EALLU Presented to Arctic Council SDWG, Maine

October 3, 2016 • Philip Burgess

Anders Oskal SDWGICR Director Anders Oskal presented the progress on the EALLU project to the Arctic Council Sustainable Development Working Group over the weekend in Orono, Maine. The Arctic Council is currently under the U.S. Chairmanship.

The progress on the project is considerable. EALLU is managed by ICR and WRH, with co-leads Canada, Denmark/Greenland, Norway, Russia, USA, the Aleut International Association and the Saami Council. EALLU runs up to 2019, but already 26 different activities such as community workshops, seminars and events have been held, in a huge variety of locations, including Inuvik, Nome, Kautokeino, Inari, Copenhagen, St Petersburg, Moscow, Uryung-Khaya, Chersky, Topolinoe, Yakutsk, Genhe (China) and Tereli in Mongolia, to name but a few.

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RIEVDAN Workshop on Traditional Foods and Knowledge, St Petersburg

September 6, 2016 • Philip Burgess

On September 12, 2016 in the Indigenous Peoples Institute (IPI) in St Petersburg, Russia, the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry and the UArctic EALAT Institute is organizing a seminar on indigenous peoples’ traditional food, traditional food culture and traditional knowledge. The seminar is being organized under the umbrella of the RIEVDAN project and is entitled ‘Traditional Knowledge and Food Culture – Towards Developing Research and Transforming Indigenous Economies in the Circumpolar North‘. Speakers include Mikhail Pogodaev (Northern Forum), Lyudmila Gashiliva of the IPI, Anders Oskal of ICR, Line Kalak of the Sami University of Applied Sciences and Svein Mathiesen of EALAT Institute and the UiT, the Arctic University of Norway.

See the full programme below

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New Gallery – Vice Minister Lunde ‘Lavvu Dialogue’

May 2, 2016 • Philip Burgess

During the Biological Diversity course (8J-100) held recently in the Sami University of Applied Sciences, Kautokeino, as part of the introductory sessions there was a ‘lavvu dialogue’ held with the State Secretary Lars Andreas Lunde of the Ministry of Climate and Environment (Norway) and the President of the Sami Parliament in Norway, Aili Keskitalo. Below is new gallery of images from the session. The course is organized as  part of the Nomadic Herders project.

A ‘lavvu dialogue’ is a discussion that can take place either in a ‘lavvu‘ or in a lavvu like setting whereby all participants are seated in a circle on reindeer skins and are all equal participants in the dialogue and can share their voices in a collaborative non formal setting.

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ICR and WRH Celebrate Reindeer and Herders in Topolinoe, Sakha

April 7, 2016 • Svetlana Avelova

Reindeer Herders Day on the Tompo River

Between 31 March to 2 April in the village of Topolinoe (Tomponsky ulus, Sakha Republic) during the annual Reindeer Herders Day celebrations (which are held across Russia) there were special celebrations of the 85th anniversary of Vasily Mikhailovich Kladkin’. He was a well known ‘Hero of Socialist Labor’ and an ‘Honored Worker of Agriculture’.

Kladkin Vasily Mikhailovich (10.01.1931-27.05.2003) was a reindeer herder and Director of the sovkhoz. Not only are the residents of Topolinoe proud of him, but also the entire Republic. Under his leadership, the kolkhoz “Tomponsky” achieved outstanding success with regard to its economic indicators in the field of reindeer husbandry. Through effective organization and an intensive pre-slaughter fattening of reindeer, there was an increase in meat production and meat quality specifically and more generally, an improved local and regional economy and livelihood.

Topolinoe 2016006

Eveny herders of Brigade 12 on the move.

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WRH discussed the 1st Annual International Reindeer Move in the Arctic

April 6, 2016 • Alena Gerasimova

IMG-20160405-WA0007 It was a very tough schedule for WRH and ICR representatives Anders Oskal and Svein Mathiesen during their stay in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) this week, and they also made time to discuss the first annual international reindeer move with Muus Khaya director Egor Makarov. The reindeer move is planned for February-March 2017 for a period of 10-12 days, and will trek for 500 km through the Verkhoyansk Range in Siberia.

The idea and purpose of this of this large expedition is also to draw more attention to reindeer herding and to support international cooperation between reindeer herders of the world.     

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Northern Forum – Snapshots

November 7, 2015 • Philip Burgess

IMG_1483The Northern Forum Assembly finished today, November 6th. Below are some photos from the gathering featuring WRH and ICR personnel, a meeting with the President of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) with ICR, a TV Sakha appearance by ICR and WRH and more.

More news to follow

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Arctic Circle 2015 Wraps Up & Grows Ever Larger

October 19, 2015 • Philip Burgess

arctic-circle-conference-2015-logoIn a few short years the Arctic Circle assembly, held annually in Iceland’s capital has grown to become the largest Arctic related gathering, and is now attended by more than 1500 participants from close to 50 countries. The Assembly is held every October at the Harpa Conference Center and Conference Hall in Reykjavík, Iceland and has just wrapped up. In addition, the Arctic Circle organizes smaller forums on specific subjects, such as the 2015 forums in Alaska and Singapore, and the 2016 forums in Québec and Greenland. This year was no exception and even featured a keynote by President Hollande of France who noted the critical importance of action on climate change in advance of COP 21 in Paris, next month. Watch videos of the keynote presentations here and see photos here.

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Norway’s State Secretary and Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs Tore Hattrem was in attendance and  said Norway has stepped up its climate diplomacy over the last year and noted “Climate change affects everything. It can change food production globally, and in the end also affect security policy”

ICR Director Anders Oskal is on the Advisory Board of the Assembly and spoke at two sessions – one on Arctic Research and the other on Business and Cultural Development in the North where he was joined by Mikhail Pogodaev, who is currently the acting chair of the Northern Forum. In total ICR delivered 7 speeches and hosted 2 outbreak sessions in cooperation with the Northern Forum, IASSA, IASC, UArctic and business leaders.

The ICR/ WRH team are travelling onwards to the Arctic Council Senior Arctic Officials meeting, the first under the US chairmanship which gets underway in Anchorage tomorrow.



ICR Director Oskal in Alaska for Arctic Energy Summit & Arctic Council SDWG

September 28, 2015 • Philip Burgess

Arctic Energy Summit The Arctic Energy Summit gets underway today in Fairbanks, Alaska and the Director of the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry is one of the plenary speakers under the theme of ‘Understanding Commmunity Perspectives’. The Summit is a multi-disciplinary event expected to draw several hundred industry officials, scientists, academics, policy makers, energy professionals and community leaders together to collaborate and share leading approaches on Arctic energy issues – no doubt Shell’s recent bombshell announcement will be top of mind!

At the end of the week, Oskal will be attending the first Arctic Council SDWG meeting under the U.S. chairmanship which also takes place in Fairbanks. Oskal is travelling with Johan Mathis Turi, Secretary General of the Association of World Reindeer Herders and they will also be meeting with representatives of the Kawerak Reindeer Herders’ Association.



ICR Director to Meet Norwegian Parliamentarians in Mongolia

September 14, 2015 • Philip Burgess

Nomadic HerdersThe 2015 Autumn Meeting of the OSCE Parliamentary Assembly will be held on 15-18 September in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. The Director of the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry, Anders Oskal, is taking advantage of the large number of Norwegian parliamentarians present to introduce the Nomadic Herders project in a side meeting to them and introduce them to Dukha youth who will inform participants about the various challenges and opportunities that are impacting Dukha reindeer husbandry at the present time. Parliamentarians will meet youth in a Ger and some will accompany the Nomadic Herders team on horseback for a field trip.

Pictures and news to follow.

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New Project EALLU, Focus on Reindeer Herding Youth, Food & Climate Change

March 6, 2015 • Philip Burgess

Whitehorse family photo 450x300(Pic: Arctic Council) Some excellent news from the Arctic Council Senior Arctic Officials which was the fourth and final meeting during Canada’s Chairmanship of the Arctic Council, in Whitehorse, Yukon. At this meeting, the EALLIN full report and Executive Summary were approved for delivery to the April 24-25, 2015 Iqaluit Ministerial.

In especially exciting news for the future, the EALLU project has been formally endorsed. The working title is EALLU: Arctic Indigenous Youth, Climate Change and Food Culture. The project is to be lead by Norway, Russia and the Saami Council. The project leader will be ICR Director Anders Oskal and co leaders include Mikhail Pogodaev, Exec. Chair of WRH,  Mr. Tom Grey, President of Kawerak Reindeer Herders’ Association, Alaska and many others. EALLU will run four years and carry into the next chairmanship of the Arctic Council which is the U.S.

The societal goal of EALLU is to maintain and further develop a sustainable and resilient reindeer husbandry in the Arctic in face of climate change and globalisation, working towards a vision of creating a better life for circumpolar reindeer herders. EALLU is a Sami word, central to the concept of reindeer husbandry, and means ‘herd’. EALLU will build on the previous Arctic Council SDWG projects EALAT Information and EALLIN coordinated by the ICR and WRH which have done so much to bring reindeer herders voices’ to such a high level and engaged and energized scores of young reindeer herders from across the Arctic.

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Watch ICR Director Address to Arctic Frontiers

January 21, 2015 • Philip Burgess

The entire Arctic Frontiers conference is streamed onto the web. Here you can watch ICR Director Anders Oskal keynote presentation to the  conference on Tuesday, January 17. Scroll to 1:40:13

Anders Oskal @ Arctic Frontiers


Watch ICR Director Anders Oskal Address Arctic Circle

November 30, 2014 • Philip Burgess

Watch Anders Oskal keynote address to the recent Arctic Circle conference, held in Reykjavik.


ICR Director To Present at Arctic Circle, Iceland

November 1, 2014 • Philip Burgess

AArctic Circle Logonders Oskal, the Director of the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry will be presenting at the Arctic Circle conference tomorrow, Sunday November 2.

Oskal was invited by the President of Iceland to be a part of the Advisory Board to the high level conference entitled ‘Arctic Circle‘, which (from their website)

is nonprofit and nonpartisan. Organizations, forums, think tanks, corporations and public associations around the world are invited to hold meetings within the Arctic Circle platform to advance their own missions and the broader goal of increasing collaborative decision-making without surrendering their institutional independence.

The Arctic Circle is designed to increase participation in Arctic dialogue and strengthen the international focus on the future of the Arctic.

The meeting has attracted some very high profile names and organisations. Oskal will be presenting in the plenary session ‘Indigenous Voices in the Arctic”. Follow #ArcticCircle2014 on Twitter for live updates. Download the full programme here.


International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry will participate in the new NASA project

July 28, 2014 • Alena Gerasimova

Rain on snowIn the end of spring NASA announced winners of the grant who will participate in the research entitled “Satellite Rain-On-Snow Detection: A New Climate Change Product”, the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry is of them.

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Arctic College of Indigenous Peoples of the North (Sakha Republic) entered into an international network of World reindeer herders and UArctic EALAT Institute

June 25, 2014 • Svetlana Avelova

In Kautokeino in the northern Norway was signed an agreement on cooperation between the Arctic College of Indigenous Peoples of the North in Cherskii village, Association of World Reindeer Herders and the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry. This was made possible thanks to the development of cooperation between the college and the Association of World Reindeer Herders and the Ministry of professional education, training and placement of the personnel of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).

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NRK Covers IPCC Launch in Kautokeino

April 2, 2014 • Philip Burgess

Oskal Presenting IPCCThe Norwegian State Broadcasting company (NRK) covered the launch of the IPCC 5th Assessment event in Kautokeino with an article and short video featuring ICR Director Anders Oskal, and Bob Corell, ACIA leader author and long time collaborator with ICR. The article is in Norwegian and Sami.

See the full article and video here.


WRH Meets Minister Aglukkaq, Arctic Council Meeting Gets Underway

October 22, 2013 • Philip Burgess

Oskal & AkklukaqThe Canadian chairmanship of the Arctic Council got under way this week in Yukon Convention Centre, in Whitehorse. The Association of World Reindeer Herders (WRH) is an Observer to the Arctic Council. WRH is being represented at this years Arctic Council Sustainable Development Working Group and Senior Arctic Officials meeting (the y run concurrently) by International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry Director Anders Oskal.

Oskal had the opportunity to meet on a one on one basis with the Honourable Leona Aglukkaq, Minister of the Environment, Minister of the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency and Minister for the Arctic Council.

Aglukkaq was elected to the Canadian House of Commons as a Conservative in the 2008 Canadian federal election for the riding of Nunavut and is the first Inuk in Canadian history to be appointed to the Cabinet of Canada.

Oskal took the opportunity to discuss the role of WRH in the Arctic Council, and more specifically various initiatives regarding indigenous peoples and traditional knowledge.

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WRH & ICR on Russian Geographical Society Website

September 24, 2013 • Philip Burgess

Arctic Forum 2013The Association of World Reindeer Herders and the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry were noted in an article posted on the Russian Geographical Society website. The article is about the III International Arctic Forum being held in Salekhard September 24-25 . This year’s forum is dedicated to environmental safety and special attention will be paid to the problems of the indigenous peoples of the North.

Many indigenous peoples of the North are in Salekhard including experts from Russian and international organizations. Among them, Michael Pogodaev  the Chair of the Association of World Reindeer Herders and Anders Oskal  the Director of the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry. Others include Rodion Sulyandziga , the first vice -president of the Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of Russia (founded in 1990) , Aqqaluk Lynge , the head of the Inuit Circumpolar Council  and Eric Gant , the Executive Secretary of the of the Indigenous Peoples Secretariat of the Arctic Council.

The Forum will also be attended by Alexander Mazharov, the Deputy Governor  and Director of the Yamal Department of International and External Economic Relations. On the eve of the opening , he said:

The Government of Yamal is commited to the preservation of traditional ways of life of indigenous peoples. In this direction the government is constantly working to improve legislation and operate the program of grants for small nations produced products, programs to provide free housing , education and health care.

Read the full story here


Reindeer herders join in celebrations to mark World Environment Day

June 4, 2013 • Philip Burgess

Nomadic Herdersd Exhibit in Ulan Bator for WED 2013Ulaan Bataar, Mongolia – 3 June 2013 – During the World Environment Day celebrations – hosted this year by the Government of Mongolia – the Nomadic Herders’ project held a seminar/workshop on Monday 3rd June entitled “The Future for Reindeer Husbandry and Conservation in Mongolia’s Biodiversity Hotspot”.

The seminar gathered together reindeer herders from East and West Taiga, the Ulaan Taiga Protected Areas Administration, the Hovsgul Aimag regional government, as well as representatives from the Ministry of Environment and Green Development, the Association of World Reindeer Herders (WRH), the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry (ICR) and GRID-Arendal.

The focus of the seminar was to provide an update and information sharing session on the topics of the new Special Presidential Decree on Reindeer Husbandry; a new potential project to transport reindeer from Sakha Republic to Mongolia; recent developments in the establishment of the Tengis-Shishged Protected Area; and a presentation on the Nomadic Herders UNEP/GEF project.

Opening the session, Tsogtsaikhan Purev from the Ministry of Environment and Green presented the new Special Decree on Reindeer Husbandry. The Decree, which was recently enacted by Parliament, will have a focus on providing increased access for the reindeer herding community to social welfare, education, and cooperation opportunities. A total of 36 activities under four pillars will be implemented over 5 years.

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Nomadic Herders Project Meets With Achim Steinar, UNEP Exec Director

June 3, 2013 • Philip Burgess

A Steinar meets Nomadic Herders

Achim Steiner (UNEP Executive Director and Under-Secretary-General of the UN)  met with  members of the GEF/UNEP International Nomadic Herders team including Dr  Mikhail Pogodeav, ICR Director Anders Oskal, and WRH Secretary General Johan Mathis Turi.  Mongolia is hosting World Environment Day and there are a number of events in Ulan Bator this week, including a Nomadic Herders project seminar ‘The future of reindeer husbandry in Mongolia and Conservation in Mongolia’s Biodiversity hotspot’. A number of topics of importance to reindeer herders not only in MOngolia but across the taiga region, where reindeer herding is considered to be at its most vulnerable were discussed in the seminar with a focus on sustainable development for reindeer husbandry  and how biodiversity and a reindeer herder economy can be enhanced  in Russia and Mongolia. (Read the full ICR press release about the seminar here)

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EALLIN Presented to Arctic Council

May 19, 2013 • Philip Burgess

Arctic Council Ministerial Kiruna 2013The Arctic Council met in Kiruna last week and the meeting signalled the passing of the Chair from Sweden to Canada. Much media coverage was given over to the issue of new observers to the Council (China was accepted as Observer after 10 years of trying, also India, Italy, Japan, Singapore and South Korea). China now can participate at the same level as…the Association of World Reindeer Herders (!) which is also an Observer to the Arctic Council. Membership of the Council has been a valuable and important tool for bringing the concerns and challenges of reindeer herders to the highest levels of government around the Arctic (see EALAT Information). The importance of Observer status to WRH will likely increase over time as the Arctic grows rapidly in strategic and resource importance.

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ICR Director Oskal Interviewed by Chinese News Agency at Arctic Council Ministerial

May 15, 2013 • Philip Burgess

Arctic Council Ministerial Kiruna 2013

Representatives of the indigenous Saami people told Xinhua on Tuesday that they were actively adapting, with “the best knowledge available”, to challenges posed by the changing environment in the Arctic region.

According to the Saami delegation participating the Arctic Council Working Group presentations here in Kiruna, the northernmost Swedish city within the Arctic circle, they were trying to learn the best knowledge and to cope with the challenges, particularly the changing situations for reindeer herding, typical means of the group’s livelihood.

“There were needs, of course, minerals, copper and perhaps cellphones, but one thing we can say for certain is that, the world that people also need food (reindeer products)”, said Anders Oskal, a Norwegian Saami, also director of the International Centre for Reindeer Husbandry, voicing awareness been raised to the livelihood of his people just before the Eighth Ministerial Meeting of the Arctic Council.

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