Loss of pastures is a significant challenge to reindeer husbandry in all places where it is practiced. Pastures are lost to due to the development of roads, infrastructure, military activities, power lines, pipe lines, dams, leisure homes and related activities have all contributed to a decline in ‘wilderness’ areas, which are prime reindeer pastures. This process has been particularly pronounced in the Nordic countries, but many regions in Russia are experiencing a dramatic increase in oil and gas activities and to a lesser extent, mining. These resources are invariably beneath reindeer pastures. Development is expected to increase in the Arctic and with it a concomitant loss of pastures.